a- 中英文意思 在,到;来,临近;离开;否定;副词prefix ;加强意义PPT

来源于古英语和中古英语a-, an, on。

同源单词

aboard, abroad, acentric, across, ago

prefix a- 中英文意思 on,inPPT

前缀a-是来源于本族语的派生前缀他原是古英语的一个介词,其意思相当于现在的on,in等。作为一个介词性前缀a-一般加在名词前,也可以加在能充当名词使用的动词之前,有时还可以加在形容词之前,所生成的派生词是句法相当于介词短语的形容词或副词值得注意的是,带有a-的形容词,在句子中多充当表语或后位定语。前缀a-除了有on,in 意思外,还有"to,at,of,for,from,out,not"(aboard,aside,asleep)等意思。另外它还有大多数前缀共有的"intensive"(arise,awake)的含义。此外,前缀a在辅音字母m,v前变形为ab-,意为"away"(amend,aversion);在辅音字母sc,sp,st前变为ad,意为"to"(ascend),aspire,astringent);作为前缀an-在辅音字母前面的省略形式,意为"not,without"(achromatic)。

1.adrift

adv./adj.not under control and driven by wind and water;afloat;loose(船在风浪中打转)漂流的;漂浮的;松开的

例句:Our boat had gone adrift sometime in the night.我们的船在晚上不知何时漂走了。

2.adroit

adj.clever,skillful,ingenious or resourceful when dealing with problems 机敏的;技术精湛的;熟练的

例句:He has led three expeditions and is known to be an adroit navigator.他已经领导了三次远航,现在是以技术精湛而闻名的航海家。

3.aghast

adj.filled with fear and surprise 惊骇的

例句:Onlookers were left aghast when the bull succeeded in goring the man.当斗牛成功地角顶撞到人时,所有的观众都惊呆了。

4.ajar

adj.slightly open(门等)微开的

例句:A window had been left ajar.有一扇窗户是半开关的。

5.alight

v.get down from a horse,bus ,etc.;come down from the air and settle 从所乘、所骑物上下来;鸟落到树上、地面上

adj.on fire;lighted up 着火的;点火的

例句:King Abjudar alighted from the helicopter and waved to the crowd.阿布朱达国王走下直升机,朝人群挥手。

6.aloof

adv.apart远离

adj.cool 冷谈的;孤零的

例句:Tom’s been rather aloof since his grandfather died.祖父去世后,汤姆对任何事都漠不关心。

7.amass

v.collect;pile or heap up 聚集;收集,积聚

例句:serbs forces had amassed a huge cache of weapons during the cease-fire.在停战期间,塞尔维亚军队秘密聚积大量的武器。

8.askance

adv.with suspicion 斜视,疑心

Mrs.laFeber looked askance at the salesman.拉佛波夫人用怀疑的目光斜视前销售人员。

9.askew

adv.out of the straight or usual level position 斜歪,倾斜

例句:wind had blown the billboard askew and crew had to be called to set it straight again.风把广告牌刮歪了,不得不叫一个职员来把它重新放正。

10.amend

v.修正;改善 (表露出缺少)a- = ex- = out,extremely,mend=fault

11.Amazon

n.希腊神话中的女战士;(the~~)亚马逊河(没有乳房的)《a-(without) + mazon(breast)》

解说:希腊的传说中,有一种使希腊军队大感头痛的女性兵团,她们把妨碍她们拉弓的右乳房切除,希腊人据此传说造了这个字。1541年西班牙的探险家Orellana,对住在当时称为Rio Santa Maria de la 河流域部族中的女性的勇猛善

战,感到印象深刻,因此将此河川命名为the Amazon.

prefix a-(an-) 中英文意思 not,withoutPPT

在常用词asocial和anonynous 中含有一对希腊语源的否定前缀a-和an-,其意思相当于not,without或者lacking。它们一般加在希腊语源的形容词或名词之前,构成对应的反义词。其中,an-用于元音或原先不读音的h之前,a-用于其他情况a-(an-)也可以出现在希腊词根前,构成的原生派生词往往是较早引入英语的希腊词。

先来认识几个由an-与形容词构成的派生词。

1.anonymous [an-(a-) = 无;onymous adj.有名字的]

adj.无名的,匿名的

ex)He received an anonymous letter today.他今天收到一封匿名信。

2.anechoic [an-(a-) = not 无;echoic adj.回声的]

adj.无回声的

ex)The recording was made in an anechoic chamber. 这录音是在隔音室做出来的。

3.anharmonic [an-(a-) = not 不;harmonic adj.和谐的]

adj.[物]非谐的

ex)That is a kind of anharmoic force. 那是一种非谐力。

a-出现在辅音字母与读音的h之前。常见的有:

1.asocial [a- = not 不;social adj.爱交际的]

adj.不合群的

ex) He is asocial and suspicious of others. 此人不合群,疑心又重。

2.aperiodic [a- = not 非;periodic adj.周期性的]

adj.非周期性的;不定期的

ex) The object is in an aperiodic motion. 该物体正处于非周期性运动之中。

3.asexual [a- = not 无;sexual adj.性别的]

adj.无性别的

ex)The teacher talked about asexual reproduction in the class.那节课老师谈到了无性繁殖问题。

4.ahistorical [a- = not 无;historical adj.有关历史的]

adj.与历史无关的

ex)He thought that theories of social change were often ahistrorical.他认为社会变化的理论往往与历史不相干。

最后,我们来学习几个由a- (an-) 构成的原生词。

1.anarchy [an-(a-) = without 无;archy = leadership 领导,治理→“无领导状态”]

n.无政府状态;无秩序

ex)After its defeat in the war the coutry was in a state of anarchy. 战败之后,该国陷于无政府状态。

2.apathy [a- = without 无;pathy = the state of feeling 感情状态→“无感情状态”]

n.无感情,冷漠

ex)The miser heard the old beggar’s story with apathy. 那守财奴听着老叫化子的诉说,无动于衷。

3.atheism [a- = without 无;the = god 神;-ism = the belief 信仰]

n.无神论

ex) He believed in atheism when he was young. 他年青时信仰无神论。