counter- 中英文意思 相反,相对PPT

中古英语为countre-,来源于中古法语前缀contre-或副词contre。

同源单词

counteract, counteragent, counterfeit, counterpart, countervail

prefix counter- 中英文意思 against,opposite,in returnPPT

counter-作为英语本族语的前缀,大约出现在15世纪左右,它的前身是古法语的counte,始祖却正是拉丁词contra-。所以,counter-的基本含义也是against,由此引申出opposite,in return 等意义。除了在少量法语借词中counter-与词根结合之外,它基本上是个派生词缀,可以与名词、动词及少量形容词相缀合,当它与名词结合时,主要起修饰名词的作用,一般不改变词基单词的词性。

counter-与词根结合的两个法语借词。

1.counterfeit [counter- = against 针对;feit(fac) = to make制作→针对真品进行仿制]

vt.伪造(货币等);仿造

ex)He was sent to prison for counterfeiting five-dollar bills.他因伪造5元面值的钞票被送进监狱。

2.counterpoise [counter- = against 对抗;poise(peis) =weight 重量→与另一重量相抗衡的重量]

n.平衡力,抵消力

His robust strength was a counterpoise to the disease. 强壮的体质帮助他顶住了那场疾病。

counter-与名词缀合生成名词派生词的几个例子。

1.counterbalance [counter- = opposite 相反的;balance n.平衡力→反向平衡力]

n.平衡力,抗衡

ex)Her husband’s cool judgement was a counterbalance to her impulsiveness. 她丈夫处事冷静,这对她的冲动冒失起了平衡作用。

2.counterpart [counter- = corresponding 对应的;part n.部分→在另一方的对应部分]

n.配对物;对手方

ex)During his visit to France,our foreign minister conferred with his French counterpart several times. 在法国访问期间,我外交部长与法国外交部长商谈数次。

3.countersign [counter- = in return 回答的;sign n.信号→ ]

b, 应答信号;口令

ex)The soldier had to give the countersign before he could pass the sentry. 土兵必须答出口令才能通过岗哨。

下面是counter- 与动词等相结合的词例。

1.counterattack [counter- = against 反;attack v. 攻击]

v. 反击;反攻

ex)He counterattacked with the charges that the critics themselves were fascist. 他反控那些批评家,说他们自己就是搞法西斯主义的。

2.countercharge [counter- = against 反;charge v.控诉]

v.反诉,反击

He charged me with bribery,and I countercharged him with slander. 他控告我受贿,我则反控他诽谤。

3.counterclockwise [counter- = opposite 相反的;clockwise adj. & adv. 顺时针方向]

adj./adv. 逆时针方向的(地)

They danced counterclockwise around the Maypole. 他们按逆时针方向绕着五朔节花柱跳舞。