de- 中英文意思 去掉,取消;向下,减少;否定,相反;离开,分离;加强意义PPT

来源于拉丁语前缀de-。

同源单词

debate, debris, deburr, decadence, decay

prefix de- 中英文意思 down;away;to undo;to make down or awayPPT

de-是个用法较为复杂的前缀。它原是个拉丁介副词,只出现在拉丁或法语借词中。de-依附在词根前,表示dwon(from)或away(from)的意思,有时则表示对词根的强调,有completely 的意思。后来,de-被英语所同化,变成一个相当活跃的派生前缀。它可以加在动词或名词之前生成否定意义的动词。当它与动词结合时,基本意思是to undo,表示“做(与原动词)相反的动作”。当它与名词结合时,基本意思是to make down or away,表示“降低,剥离,取走”等动

作,下面,我们按照de-的构词功能,分别介绍。

先观察由de-与词根结合的几个具有代表性的例子。

1.decline [de- = down 下;clin = to bend 弯;-e → " to bend down 弯下去"→]

v. 下倾

ex)The road declines at the turn. 到拐弯处路转下坡了。

2.decrease [de- = down 下;creas = to grow 变得]

v. 减少;减小

ex) Hunger decreases as one eats. 吃东西时饥饿感就减少了。

3.debar [de- = away 外;bar = to shut 关→]

vt. 排除;阻止

ex)He was debarred from club membership because of the scandal. 因为那件丑闻,他被俱乐部拒之门外。

4.detract [de- = away 离;tract = to draw 抽→]

v. 减损;贬低

ex)The ugly frame detracts from the beauty of the picture. 难看的画框影响了这幅的美丽。

最后介绍de-作为动词性前缀与名词结合的例子。

1.declass [de- = to make down 使向下;class n.阶级→]

vt. 使降低或失去社会地位

ex)The baron had some working-class relatives,so he was declassed. 男爵有一些属于劳工阶层的亲属,因此他的社会地位就降低了。

2.degrade [de- = to make down 使向下;grad n.级别 →使某人级别下降]

vt. 使降低,贬黜

ex)The sergeant was degraded to private for disobeying orders. 那中士因为不服从命令被降为士兵。

3.debark [de- = to get away from 从…离开;bark n.船 →]

v. 下(船、飞机等),上岸,登陆

ex)After the passengers debarked in port,the captain debarked his crew. 旅客上岸后,船长打发手下人下船。