prefix ex-,e-,ef-,ec-词源、意思和例词PPT

前缀ex-是很重要的前缀,它来源于拉丁介词ex,意为out或out of,即表示“向外”、“分离”的倾向。作为原生词缀与拉丁介词根结合时,ex-有两个异体e-和ef-。其中,ex-用在元音字母和c,h,p,q,s,t前面;ef-只出现在f之前;e-则可以出现在b,d,g,j,l,m,n,r,v等之前。值得注意的是,ex-又可以作为派生前缀,与表示身份或职业的名词相结合,表示former (以前的,前任的)的意思。这时ex-没有异体,而且往往要带连字符。

下面重点看一下ex-的主要意思“out”。

1.在外边,向外

expressly, elucidate, expedite

2.向上,伸展地

elated, extol, elongate

3.尽,没有了地,火灭了地

extinct, effete

4.挑选,捏出,拔出

emend, effigy

5.去除,摆脱,使分离

expurgate, exorbitant, extenuate

6.彻底地,完全地,到最终,到最后,大声地,听得见地

extant, edict

7.表强调[非常,用力]

exalt, efficacious, exhort

另外,前缀ex-还会出现辅音字母同化和辅音字母脱落等变形现象。

1.E(在辅音字母b,d,g.j.I,m,n,r,v之前]

ebullition, editorial, egregious, ejection, eligible, emanate, enervate, eradicate,evacuation

2.EF(在辅音字母f之前]

efficiency, effeminate

3、EC(在辅音字母c,l,s,t,z之前]

eccentric, eclectic, ecstasy, appendectomy, eczema

4.ES(在辅音字母c之前]

escort, escapism

5.EX(ex之后的辅音字母s脱落]

ex( s)piration, ex(s)tirpate, ex(s)istence

此外,前缀ex-还有一些同义前缀out-,extra-,exter,extro,它们也有“在外边(out)”的含义。

例词:

1.emit [(e<ox (=out) +mit (=send)向外寄送]

vt. give off.send or send out; signal; issue paper money.etc. 散发光、热、声音、味道等,发出,发射;发出信号;发行纸币等

emission 发射;纸币发行 emissary 使者,密使

ex) Smoke detectors emit a waming sound when the battery is low.

当电池电量低时,烟雾报警器会发出警告声。

2.enumerate [(e<ex( =out) +numer( =number)彻底地数、列举)]

vt. count a list of articles naming them one by one 逐一清点,列举

enumeration 逐一清点,列举;细目,目录,一览表

ex) The teacher enumerated the pupil’s mistakes before punishing him

老师在惩罚那个学生之前先逐一列举了他所犯的错。

3.evoke [(e<ex( =out, up) +vok/voc (=call)向外、向上叫)]

vt. call forth or summon a spirit, etc; draw forth or elicit a particular mental image reaction, etc. 招出灵魂等;引起,唤起 evocation 唤出,唤起

evocative 唤出的,唤起的

ex) That song evokes pleasant high school memories for me.

那首歌唤起了我中学时的美好回忆。

4.exalt [(ex( =out, intensive) +alt( =high)使上得非常高]

vt. make higher in status, power, dignity, honor, wealth, etc., praise highly; lift

someone up 提高或提升地位、权力、品位、名誉、财膏等;赞扬;使喜悦,使得意洋洋 exaltation 提高,晋升;赞扬;得意洋洋 exalted 有品位的,高贵的

ex)Vice Presidents are sometimes suddenly exalted to the Presidency by assassinations. 副总统偶尔会因暗杀事件而突然晋升为总统。

5.expend [(ex( =out) +pend( =pay,weigh)支付以使某物完尽、没有了]

vt. sth+on+sth spend; use up 使用,消费;消耗,用光 expenditure 支出,经费

expense费用,支出;牺牲 expensive 昂贵的 expendable可花费的

ex) About 28% of the library’s annual budget is expended on new acquisitions.

那家图书馆年预算中的28%左右都用来购置新书。

6.expressly [(ex (=out) +press (=press)下压挤出外边]

adv.definitely, plainly; specially,on purpose 明白地,清楚地;特别地,故意地

express 表达,表示;快递;明白的,明示的;快递的,快速的;快车,快件;捷运公司 expression 表达;措辞;表情 expressionism 表现主义 expressive 表现的,显示的 expressionless 无表情的,无表达的

ex) The web site was oxpreuly created to support recently widowed women.

那家网站是为支持那些近来失去丈夫的女性们特别创建的。

7.extinc [(ex( =out) +tinct<stinct(=prick)用针剌使变没有了]

adj. no longer in existence, having died out;no longer buming, no longer active不再存在的;消亡了的,绝种的(灭绝的);(火)熄灭的,不再活跃的

extinction 消灭,绝种;(火)熄灭,废止 extinguisher 灭火器 extinguish 熄灭(火),使消灭

ex) Hundreds of insect species become extinct each year.

每年都有数百种昆虫灭绝。

8.extort [(ex( =out) +tort( =twist)扭曲使出来]

vt. sth+from+sb obtain money, etc. from someone by threats, force, etc; exact;wrest 敲诈钱财等;强求约定、坦白等;强取,抢夺 extortion 强求,抢夺,官员的勒索钱财罪 extortionate 价格过于昂贵的,要求

过高的

ex) The Mafioso extorted money from an old widow to pay her husband’s debt.

那个黑手党成员从一个老寡妇那里敲诈钱替她丈夫还了债。

9.eject [(e<ex( =out) +ject( =throw)向外扔]

vt. compel somebody to leave a place; send out liquid, etc. 撵出,驱逐;喷射液体等,排出 ejection 撵出,排 ecjector 驱逐者,排出器

ex) After committing 5 fouls,a basketball player is electod from the game.

篮球选手犯规五次就要被罚下赛场。

10. elongate [(e<ex( =out) +long( =long)使伸展得长长地]

v. make or become long in space 使伸长,拉长,变长 elongation 伸长,延长

ex) Pull on soft water taffy to elongate it as it cools.

当软水太妃糖冷却的时候用力拉它可使它变长。