prefix in-(il-,im-,ir-,i-,en-) 中英文意思 不,无,非;向内,入PPT

前缀in-在英语中派生出大量的英语单词,在所有英语词缀里面,由这个前缀派生出来的单词数量惊人的大,比如金正基《英语词缀与派生词》一书就列出由前缀in-派生出的单词就有145个,再加上冷僻的单词那就更多了。在所有由前缀in-派生出来的单词中,in-意思可分为两大类:1)表示否定意义的派生前缀in-,表示not,no,lack of 意思是“不、无、非”;2)表示方向的原生前缀in-,表示in,into;on,upon;toward 意思是“向内、入”等。

下面我们对in-两大意思来源,及其变体进行详细讲解:

前缀in-表示否定意义时:in-的前身是表示否定意义的拉丁前缀in-,其基本含义是not。能与in-结合的拉丁词干的英语中几乎都是借词,所以,我们可以把in- 看成一个特殊的派生前缀,它只与拉丁借词相结合。具体地说,in-可以跟形容词(及其派生词)、名词缀合,其意义分别为not(不)和lack of(无)。这时,in-并不改变词基单词的词性。不过,in-又保留着某些原生词缀的特点,它受词干首字母的同化,生出il-,im-,ir-三种异体(在刘毅词根词典里面这种变im-,ir-,en-,i-体包括),其中,in- 用在除l,b,m,p,r之外的其他字母之前;il-用在l之前,ir-用在r之前;im-用在唇音b,p,m之前。

前缀in-表示方向的前缀时:in-来源于拉丁介副词in,其基本含义是in/into,on/upon或towrads。它一般加缀在拉丁动词词根前,构成原生动词或动词词干,在构词中起修饰或加强作用。与表示否定前缀的in-一样,表示方向的前缀in-也有il-,im-和ir-三种变体,而且构词规则与还定前缀in-也完全相同。

概括:

一. in-

(1) 表示:不、无、非。

(2)向内、入。

(3)加强意义,或表示“使…”、“作…”。

二. im- (用在b,m,p之前)

(1) 表示:不、无、非。

(2)向内、入。

(3)加强意义,或表示“使…”、“饰以…”、“加以…”。

三. il- (用在l之前)

(1) 表示:不、无、非。

(2) 加强或引申意

四. ir- (用在r之前)

(1) 表示:不、无、非。

(2) 向内,入

例词:

1.illicit [il<in( =not) +lic( =permit)法律不允许的]

adj. unlawful, forbidden 非法的,法律禁止的 illicitly 非法地

ex) The minister had conducted an illicit affair with a parishioner for years.

那位牧师多年以来一直和一名教区居民保持着非法关系。

2.illusion [il<in( =in) +lus/lud( =play,laugh)在…里玩、笑]

n. the seeing of something that does not really exist; false idea or belief 幻影,幻想;错觉,妄想

illusionist 魔术家,幻想家 illusive/illusory 幻觉的,错觉的,迷惑人的

ex) Many old maids hold the ilusion of perfect marriage well into their fifties.

许多老处女在五十岁以后仍煞幻想着拥有完美的婚姻。

3.immense [im<in( =not) +mens<meter( =measure)无法测量的]

adj. vast,huge; very good,excellent 极广大的,无限的,巨大的;极妙的,优秀的

immensity 无限,广大,庞大的东西 immensely 无限地,非常

ex) There is an immense gulf of enmity between my brother and me.

我哥哥和我之间存在一道鸿沟,我们矛盾很深。

4.immerse [im<in( =into)+mers<merg (=dip, plunge) 浸入…之中弄湿]

vt. sb/sth+in+sth put under the surface of water or other liquid; absorb deeply,engross; baptize by dipping under water 浸入,使沉浸;使埋首于;施浸礼

immersion 浸入;专心;浸礼 immerge( =immerse)

ex) He immersed himself in his studies to the detraction of his social life.

他因埋头于学业而忽视了社交生活。

5.immobile [im<in (=not)+mob (=move)不能移动的]

adj. not able to move or be moved; motionless 不能移动的,不动的,固定的

immobilize 使(某物)不能移动 immobility 固定,静止

ex)A plaster cast holds a broken bone immoblie, allowing it to heal.

石膏绷带固定住骨折的骨头,以利于其恢复。

6.impact [im<in( =intensive) +pact( =fasten, agree)使劲系紧,捆紧]

n. strong impression or effect; collision, force exerted by one object when striking against another 强烈的印象、影响;冲突,冲击

vt. pack firmly together; collide with 填满;冲突

ex) The appeal had such an impact on me that I contributed $100 dollars.

那呼吁给我以巨大的影响,我捐献了100美元。

7.impassable [im<in( =not)+pass( =stride, step)跨不过的,越不过的]

adj. impossible to travel through or on 不能通行的,不能通过的,无法穿越的

impassability 不能通行

ex) Many of the highest mountain passes are impassable in winter.

高山上的路有很多在冬天无法通行。

8.implement [im<in( =in)+ple(=fill)把…里面填满]

n. tool or instrument for working with 工具,手段

vt. carry an undertaking, agreement, promise into effact 履行协定、约定等

implementation n. 履行,实行

ex) The plan will be implemented in stages, starting next week.

此计划下周开始分阶段实施。

9.incalculable [in( =not)+calcul( =reckon)数不清的]

adj. too great to be calculated; unpredictable 无法计算的,无法预测的,(数目)巨大的

ex) Prime numbers of more than 100 digits are incalculable by today’s supercomputers. .

就是今天的超级计算机,也无法计算出超过100位的小数。

10. incomprehensible [in( =not)+com( =thoroughly) +prehens( =take)根本无法抓住的]

adj. that cannot be understood 不能理解的 incomprehension 不了解

ex) l’ve studied French for months, but I still find most conversations incomprehensible.

我已经学了好几个月法语,但发现对多数对话仍无法理解。

11. indisputable [in (=not)+dis( =apart) +put (=think)不必分开考虑的]

adj. that cannot be disputed; unquestionable 无争论之余地的,明白的

ex) lt’s an indisputable tact that I earn more in sales commissions than she does.

我的销售佣金比她多,这是无可争辩的事实。

12.induce [in( =in, into)+duc( =lead)拉向里面]

vt. sb+to do bring about; persuade; draw a general conclusion or principle from particular facts 引起,致使;劝诱;归纳

inducement 劝诱,刺激物 induction 归纳法;感应;就任;募兵 inductive 诱导的;归纳的 induct 正式就任;人会;募兵

ex) Doctors often Induce labor in pregnant women with powerful drugs.

区生常用强效药物为孕妇催产。

13.inept [in (=not)+ept<apt( =fit)不适当的]

adj. not suitable to the purpose; wrong in a foolish and awkward way; incompetent 不适当的;无能的;愚笨的,笨拙的;不熟练的

ineptitude不熟练;不适宜;不当的言行 ineptly 不适当地

ex)I apologize for my inept remark;I never meant to offend you.

我为自己不恰当的话道歉,我绝不是有意冒犯您。

14. ingenuity [in (=in)+gen (=birth)诞生的状态]

n. cleverness and skill; originality in design 机灵,精明;才能;独创性,创造力

ingenious 机灵的,有发明才能的,巧妙的 ingenuous 纯真的

ex) His ingenuity kept the company running even during the cash shortfall.

他的才智使公司在资金不足的状况下仍能正常运转。

15.ingrained [in (=in)+grain<gran( =seed)杷种子播在…里面]

adj. deeply fixed; thorough; going deep(习惯等)根深蒂固的;(谎言)彻头彻尾的;(理论、思想等)深入骨髓的

ingrain 生染,使(习惯等)根深蒂固:生染的,根深蒂固的; 生染的纤维

ex) Adult’s racial prejudice has typically been ingrained since childhood.

成人的种族偏见一般从儿时起就已根深蒂固。

16.ingratitude [in( =not)+grat(=thank, pleasing, favor)不感谢的]

n. lack of gratitude 不知感恩,忘思负义 ingrate 忘恩负义者

ex) Because of her past ingratitude,I won’t be giving her any more gifts.

因为她以前不知感恩图报,所以我决不再送她礼物。

17. inhabitant [in( =in)+hab( =live, have)在…里面居住的人]

n. a person or animal that inhabits some specified region, dwelling, etc. 居民,居住者:栖息动物

inhabit 居住于,居住,栖息 inhabitable 适于居住的 inhabited 有人居住的

ex) There are only 7 inhabitants in this small apartment building.

这幢小公寓楼里只有七个人住。

18.initiative [in (=in, into)+it (=go)去里边]

n. first or introductory step or move; capacity to see what needs to be done and enterprise enough to do it:the right of citizens to introduce new laws 先导,主导权,率先,开始;创意;进取心,事业心;公

民立法提案权

initiate 开始,入门;新加入的(人),被传授的(人)initiation 开始,着手,入会

initial开始的,最初的;(字的)首字母,名字的首字母;以首字母签名

ex) Employees with initiative are likely to be promoted after their first year.

有进取心的职员可能会在第一年之后得到提升。

19.innovation [in( =in) +nov (=new)翻新里面]

n. the act or process of innovating; something new that is introduced 革新,创新;新制度,新事物;发明

innovate 改革,创新 innovator 改革者,创新者 innovative 创新的

ex) Her innovation contributed to several new and useful teaching methods.

地的革新方案有助于开发一些新的、有效的教学方法。

20.instantaneous [in (=on)+st (=stand)站于…上]

adj. happening in an instant 瞬间的,即刻的

instant 瞬间,刹那;即刻的 instantaneously 瞬间地,刹那间

ex) Wire transfers are instantaneous. The money arrives in milliseconds.

电汇瞬间就可完成,钱即刻可到账。

21.intangible [in( =not)+tang( =touch)无法接触或抚摸的]

adj. that cannot be touched; insubstantial; not easily grasped by the mind 不能抚摸的;无形的;难以掌握的 intangibility 不可触知性

ex) Some of the most important gifts we receive from parents are intangible.

我们从父母那儿得来的一些最重要的礼物是无形的财富。

22.intensive [in( =in)+tens (=stretch)在…里拉高]

adj. characterized by intensity; concentrated,thorough; giving force and emphasis 强烈的;集中的,彻底的;加强语气的,强调的

intensify 加强 intensification 激化,强化 intensity 强烈;紧张 intension 强度 intense 强烈的,激烈的;热情的

ex)I took a 2-day intensive course on how to use my new computer.

力学会使用我的新计算机,我参加了一个为期两天的强化培训课程。

23.intimidate [in (=in)+tim(=fear)使陷入恐惧的状态]

vt. make someone afraid; force someone to do something by means of threats 使害怕;胁迫,威胁

intimidation 威胁,胁迫

ex)Some adults compel obedience from young children by intimidating them.

一些大人通过威胁孩子来迫使他们服从。

24. invoke [in ( =on) +vok/voc (=call)依靠…呼喊]

vt. call upon God,the power of the law,etc. for help or protection; request earnestly;summon up by magic 祈求上帝的保佑;求助于法律的力量;诚恳地请求;用魔法召唤

invocation 祈祷;呼诉,请求;咒语

ex) People who say blessings at mealtime invoke the name of God with thanks.

就餐时祈祷的人心怀感激地呼唤着上帝的名字。

25.imminent [im<in (=on)+min (=hang,project)悬挂在某物上]

adj. impending; likely to happen without delay 紧急的:急迫的,迫切的

imminence 急迫,迫近 imminently 迫切地,迫近地

ex)I’ll wait and buy it later because their clearance sale is imminent.

因为他们马上就要清仓甩卖了,我决定过些时候再买那样东西。

26.impartial [im<in (=not)+part (=part)不分割某物的]

adj. not favoring one more than another 公平的,不偏不倚的

impartiality 公正,不倔不倚 impartially 公平地

ex)Ideally a judge will be imparial in his administration of justice.

理想地说,法官应该公正执法。

27.implore [im<in( =intensive)+plor(=weep)眼泪汩汩而流]

vt. ask or beg earnestiy for 恳求,哀求,寻求神或法律的宽恕

imploration 乞求,恳求 imploring 哀求的 imploringly 哀求地

ex) The woman implored the doctors to locate a liver donor for her dying son.

那个女人哀求医生为她垂死的儿子寻找肝脏捐赠者。

28.impostor [im<in (=on)+post (=put)放在上面]

n. a person who deceives or cheats by pretending to be someone or something that he is not 胃名顶替者,骗子

ex) l’ve read of several cases where respected physicians turned out to be impostors.

我曾阅读过几宗关于受尊敬的内科医生最终被查明是骗子的案例。

29.incentive [in( =in, on)+cent( =sing)在…里面唱歌]

n. that which incites, rouses, or encourages a person 动机,诱因,刺激

ex) Salespeople usually receive commissions as an incentive to sell more.

营业员通常可以从销售中提成,这成为其销售更多货物的动机。

30.indifference [in( =not)+dif<dis(=away)+fer(=carry)搬运时注意不使脱离]

n. ~ to the state of being indifferent; absence of interest or feeling; lack of importance, meaning, or worth 不关心,冷淡;不重要

indifferent 不关心的,无关紧要的,平凡的

ex) lt’s hard to be in love with you when you show me only indifference.

你对我一点儿也不关心,我很难爱上你。

31.irreverent [ir<in(=not) + re(=again) + ver(=feel awe) 不再有敬畏感的]

adj. feeling or showing no respect for sacred things 不尊敬的,不恭敬的

inrreverence 不敬的行为(言辞)

ex)Many teenagers today are irreverent towards authority figures.

现在,许多十几岁的青少年对权威人物并不尊敬。

32.irrelevant [ir<in(=not) + re(=again) + lev (=lift,light) 不能再举起的]

adj. not relevant;not connected 不相关的;不切题的;不恰当的

irrelevance/irrelevancy 不恰当的;无关系;不切题

ex)教授说我论文的第三段与论文整体无关联性。

33.ignoble [i<in(=not) +gno (=know) 不能知道的]

adj. of low character;mean;of low birth 低劣的,卑劣的;不光彩的;(出身或身份)低微的

ex)The Taliban in Afghanistan met an ignoble end at the hands of the USA.

阿富汗的塔利班政权在美国手里落了个不光彩的下场。