mal-, male-, mali- 中英文意思 坏,错误PPT

来源于拉丁语malus(坏)

同源单词

malnutrition, malpractice, maltreat, malefactor, maleficent

prefix mal-(male-) 词源、意思和例词PPT

mal-是来源于法语的贬义词前缀,前身是法语副词mal;而mal又来源于拉丁副词male,意思是均为badly,所以,可以将male-看成mal-的异体。在英语中,mal-已经成为派生词缀,可以与动词、形容词、名词相缀全,意思为badly或bad。male-是原生词缀,多与拉丁词根相结合,其贬义更为强烈,相当于evil,evilly。

word-forming element meaning "bad, badly, ill, poorly, wrong, wrongly," from French mal (adv.), from Old French mal (adj., adv.) "evil, ill, wrong, wrongly" (9c.), from Latin male (adv.) "badly," or malus(adj.) "bad, evil" (fem. mala, neuter malum), of unknown origin, perhaps related to Avestan mairiia "treacherous." Most Modern English words with this prefix are 19c. coinages.

前缀mal-来源于拉丁语,意为“bad”。

1.坏的

malfeasance, malnutrition, malcontent

前缀mal- 的变形如下。

1.ma- [在辅音字母d,f,v之前]

malediction, malefactor, malevolent

2.mali- 在辅音字母g,s之前]

malignant.malison

此外,前缀mal-有一些同义前缀,它们也有“坏的”意思,还有一些反义前缀,意为“好的”。

1.同义前缀:mis-。

2. 反义前缀:bene-,bon-,eu-。

例词:

1.malefactor [male<mal(=bad) +fact( =do,make)做坏事的人]

n. criminal or wrongdoer 犯人,罪人;恶人

ex) My father always jokingly asks what kind of malefactor l’m dating now.

我的父亲经常开玩笑地问我,最近在和什么样的坏小子约会。

2.malediction [male<mal( =bad) +dict( =say)说得很坏]

n. curse; prayer to God that someone or something may be destroyed, hurt, etc.诅咒;恶言

ex) Heaping maledicttions upon her ex-husband, she stormed from the room.

她一边咒骂前夫,一边冲出房间。

3.malfeasance [mal( =bad) +feas( =do, make)做坏事]

n. wrongdoing; illegal act, especially an instance of official misconduct 下正当;不法行为,特别指公务员的不正当行为

ex) The mayor’s well publicized malteasance cost him the election.

市长广为人知的不正当行为使他在选举中失利。

4.maladroit [mal( =bad) +a( =to) +droit<rect(=straight, right)不能一直拉向某物的]

adj. not adroit, clumsy, tactless 不灵巧的,不熟练的,笨拙的

ex) She is so maladroit in physical education that she resembles a clown!

她在体育课上动作笨拙得像个小丑!

5.malcontent [mal( =bad) +con<com( =together) +ten( =hold)不能一起、全部拥有]

adj. discontented and inclined to rebel 不满的;反抗的

n. a person who is not contented 不满者;反抗者

ex) Don’t take his comments seriously; he’s just an old malcontent.

不要把他的批评太当回事,他只是上了年纪,心怀不满。

6.malady [mal(=bad) + ad<hab(=live,have) 具有坏的状态、恶性]

n. a disease or illness often used figuratively 病,疾病;社会的弊病

ex)My brother’s a hypochondriac,always complaining of some malady or other.

我的弟弟是个忧郁症患者,经常抱怨自己有这样的那样的病。

7.malignant [mali<mal(=bad) + gn(gen(=birth)使产生坏的状态、恶性]

adj. filled with a desire to hurt;harmful to life 有恶意的,恶毒的;(疾病)恶性的,致使的,有害的

malignity 恶意,敌意;恶性

malignancy 恶性

malign 有害的,恶性的;中伤,诽谤

ex)Unfortunately ,laboratory tests showed the mass to be malignant. 不幸的是,化验结果表明肿块恶性的。

8.malnutrition [mal(=bad) + nutri(=nourishment) 坏的营养状态]

n.condition caused by not getting enough food or enough of the right kinds of food 营养失调,营养不良

ex)Malnutrition is a grave public health problem in many African nations.

营养不良是许多非洲国家共同存在的严重的健康问题。

9.maltreat [mal(=bad) + treat (=draw)不好地拉扯]

vi. treat roughly or cruelly 滥用;虐待,粗暴地对待

maltreatment 滥用;虐待

ex)Occasionally,day care workers maltreat the children entrusted to their care. 有时候,托儿所的职员会粗暴地对待入托的孩子。

10.malevolent [male<mal(=bad)+vol(=vill) 坏的意志]

adj. wishing to do evil cause harm to others;spiteful 希望别人不好的;有恶意的,坏心肠的

malevolence 恶意,敌意

ex)I don’t believe in ghosts,malevolent or otherwise. 我不相信鬼魂,不管它是善是恶。

11.maladminister [mal-(=badly) 不良;administer v.管理 ]

v. 对…管理不善

ex)We must punish those who maladminister the law. 我们必须惩处那些渎职枉法的人。

12.maladjusted [mal-(=badly)不良;adjusted adj.调节的]

adj.调节不善的;不适应环境的

ex)Living in a split family,he becomes a maladjusted boy. 生活在父母离异的家庭,他变成心理失调的小孩。

13.malfunction [mal-(=badly)不良;function n.机能]

n. 机能失常;失灵,故障

ex)"Malfunction" is the most feared word a rocket scientist can hear. 火箭专家最害怕听到的字眼就是“失灵”。

14.malpractice [mal-(=badly)不良;practice n. 实践,做法]

n. 不法行为;玩忽职守;渎职

ex)We took pains to correct the malpractice of those officials. 我们费心苦心纠正那些官员的枉法行为。

15.malefaction [male(=evilly) 恶意地;fact =to do 做;-ion 名词后缀→ “doing evilly 恶意地干”]

n.坏事;犯罪

ex)Guilty creatures have proclaimed their malefactions. 罪犯们已经当众供出了他们的罪行。