英：word-forming element meaning 1. "after, behind," 2. "changed, altered," 3. "higher, beyond;" from Gk. meta (prep.) "in the midst of, in common with, by means of, in pursuit or quest of," from PIE *me- "in the middle" (cf. Ger. mit, Goth. miþ, O.E. mið "with, together with, among;" see mid). Notion of "changing places with" probably led to senses "change of place, order, or nature," which was a principal meaning of the Greek word when used as a prefix (but also denoting "community, participation; in common with; pursuing").
Third sense, "higher than, transcending, overarching, dealing with the most fundamental matters of," is due to misinterpretation of metaphysics as "science of that which transcends the physical." This has led to a prodigious erroneous extension in modern usage, with meta- affixed to the names of other sciences and disciplines, especially in the academic jargon of literary criticism, which affixes it to just about anything that moves and much that doesn’t.
n.process by which food is built up into living matter or by which living matter is broken down into simplwe substances新阵代谢 *meta(=change),bol(=throw)
例句：The drug seemed to upset her body’s metabolism。那种药似乎扰乱了她的新陈代谢。
n.the use of words to indicate something different from the literal meaning.隐喻 *meta(=change),phor(=carry)
例句：His writing is full of metaphors ,so not easy for a non-native speaker of English to understand.他的文字充满了隐喻，因此对于不是以英语为母语的人来说很难理解。
adj.of metaphysics ,based on abstract reasoning开而上学的，抽象的 *meta(=beyond),physi(=nature)
例句：First ,let us separate scientific fact from purely metaphysical theory.首先，让我们把科学事实和纯粹的形而上学理论区别开来。
n.branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of existence,truth ,and knowledge 形而上学 *meta(=beyond),physi(=nature)
例句：Metaphysics can sometimes explain that which cannot be explained scientifically.形而上学有时可以解释科学无法解释的东西。
n.science or study of method 方法论，方法学 *met(meta(=intensive),hod (=way)
例句：His teaching methodology developed as he gained more experience.他的教学方法随着教学经验的增加而不断完善。