pre- 中英文意思 前,先PPT

来源于拉丁语prae。

同源单词

precaution, precede, precedent, preceding, precise

prefix pre-词源、用法和例词PPT

词源:

前缀pre-与前缀post- 是一对相反的词缀,它来源拉丁介副词prae,原意为before,beforehand 或in front,即表示时间或空间上的“前”。pre- 原是个有副词含义的原生词,出现于拉丁语源的原生词中。但自15世纪以来,它成为一个活性的派生词缀,能与许多单词缀合,起介词性或修辞性的作用。当介词性的pre- 与名词缀合时,可能改变词基单词的词性。当派生前缀pre-出现在以e开头的单词或大写字母时,要加连接字符。此外,应注意原生前缀pre-中的e读短音/I/,而派生前缀pre- 中的e念长音/i:/。

英语词源:

word-forming element meaning "before," from Old French pre- and Medieval Latin pre-, both from Latin prae (adverb and preposition) "before in time or place," from PIE *peri- (cognates: Oscan prai, Umbrian pre, Sanskrit pare "thereupon," Greek parai "at," Gaulish are- "at, before," Lithuanian pre "at," Old Church Slavonic pri "at," Gothic faura, Old English fore "before"), extended form of root *per- (1)"beyond" (see per).

The Latin word was active in forming verbs. Also see prae-. Sometimes in Middle English muddled with words in pro- or per-.

前缀PRE来源于拉丁语,意为“before”,下面重点看一下PRE的主要意思"before”。

1.先前,前,早一点,以前

predilection, preview, pretext

2.前面,提前,在前面的,向前,预先

prefatory, preamble, precipice

此外,前缀pre-还有一些同义前缀,它们也具有“事先,以前”的意思;还有一些反义词缀,它们具有“后面,以后”的意思。

1.同义前缀:ante,fore

2.反义词缀:post,retro,re

例词:

1.precaution [pre(=before)+cau( =take care)事先小心,注意]

n. care taken in advance to avoid a risk 小心,警惕,预防

precautionary 预防的,警惕的

ex) As a precaution, please fasten your seat belt before starting the car.

作为一种预防措施,请在发动汽车之前系好安全带。

2.prevail [pre( =before) +vail( =strength,worth)力量领先的]

v.gain victory over; be widespread; be generally seen, done, etc.; be effective;

persuade 占优势,战胜;普及,盛行;有效;说服

prevailing 占优势的;普及的,流行的;有效的;占支配地位的 prevalent 普及的,流行的 prevalence 普及,流行

ex) Although the team was down in the 3rd quarter, in the end they prevalled.

虽然那个队在第三局处于劣努,不过最终他们还是赢了。

3.predecessor [pre( =before) +de( =down) +cess( =go)领先往下走]

n. former holder of any office or position; ancestor; thing to which another has succeeded 前任;祖先;被代替的原有事物

ex) The new Miss America was crowned by her predecessor.

前任美国小姐给新当选的美国小姐戴上了桂冠。

4.premature [(pre( =before) +mat( =ripe)早一点熟的]

adj. happening or coming before the proper time; too early, untimely 时机尚早的;太早的.不到期的;早产的

ex) It would be premature to fire her; she’s still learning her job.

现在解雇她为时尚早,她还在熟悉工作。

5.prescibe [(pre( =before) +scrib( =write)事先写]

v. set down as a direction or rule; order as a medical treatment 规定,命令;开处方

prescription 处方;命令,指示,规定,法规 prescript 命令,规定,法令,法律

prescriptive 规定的,规范的;约定俗成的

ex) The doctor prescribed some tranquilizers and a few days of rest.

医生开了一些镇静剂,让休息几天。

6.presume [(pre(=before)+sum(=take)事先抓住、思考]

v. make supposition; venture; make a wrong use of 推断;擅自(做),冒昧(做)

presumption 推断;放肆;专横 presumptuous 放肆的;专横的;傲慢的

presumable 可以推断的 presuming 放肆的,冒昧的 presumptive 推断的

presumably 据推测;可能

ex)I prosume you’ll beflying, not driving, right?

我猜你会坐飞机,而不是自己开车,对吧?

7.preview [(pre(=before)+view( =look)事先看]

n. view of a film,play,etc. betore it is shown to the general public 电影等的试映,预演

vt. have a preview of 试映,预演

ex)l first saw Raiders of the Lost Ark at a sneak preview——and love it!

第一次看<夺宝奇兵>是在试映会土,我很喜欢!

8.preclude [(pre (=before) +clud( =shut)事先关上,关押起来]

adj. prevent; make impossible in advance 阻止,妨碍;排除;防止

preclusion n. 排除;妨碍;防止 preclusive adj. 排除的;妨碍的;防止的

ex) Some medical conditions preclude getting facial cosmetic surgery.

有些医疗条件会妨碍脸部整形手术。

9.predominant [(pre( =before) +domin(=master)提前征服、熟练、精通]

adj. having more power or influence than others; prevailing; conspicuous 突出的,支配的;主要的,占优势的;显著的,显眼的

predominate 支配;占优势

predominance 支配;优势;显著 predominantly 支配地;显著地

ex) The predominant color in her decorating scheme is taupe.

她的装饰方案以褐灰色为主色。

10.preamble [(pre( =before) +ambl<ambul( =walk, go)捉前走、去]

n. introduction or preliminary statement, especially to a formal statement (正式文书的)序言,前言

ex) My editor asked me to write a short preamble to my latest book.

编辑让我为我的新书写一篇简短的序言。

11.precipice [pre(=betore) +cip( =head,take)头在前边的]

n. vertical or very steep face of a rock,cliff or mountain;critical situation 绝壁,悬崖;危急的处境

precipilate 猛抛下;促进;仓促的 precipitately 仓促地;陡然下降地;冷不防地

precipitalion 投下,落下;急促;降水量 precipitous 似悬崖峭壁的,陡峭的,险峻的

ex) The liffle boy climbed onto the precipice and got stranded there.

那个小男孩爬上悬崖,站在那里孤立无援。

12.preferment [(pre(=before)+fer(=carry)向前搬运]

n. the act of moving up to a higher rank or position 晋升,提升

prefer 更喜欢…preference 更喜欢;优先权;特惠 preferential 优先的;特惠的

preferable 更好的,更可取的 preferably 更好地,更可取地

ex) He is a gentleman who never sought preferment at the cost of personal integrity.

他是一位从不以牺牲自己的人格为代价去追求晋升的绅士。

13.preposterous [(pre(=before)+poster(=coming after)本来应该在后面的来到前面]

adj. with and first last and the last first;contrary to nature,reason,or common sense as to be laughable;absurd 前后颠倒的;反常的;不合理的,荒谬的

preposterously 荒谬地,不合理地

ex)He makes the preposterous claim that he is the best tennis player in the state.

他荒唐地宣称自己是那个州最优秀的网球选手。

14.precedent [pre(=before)+ced( =go)领先走]

n. something that serves as an example for the future 前例,宪例,判例

precede 领先 precedence 优先 preceding 在先的,在前的,前面的

precedented 有先例的

ex) Some say the government’s decision to continue logging sets a dangerous precedent.

有人说政府继续伐木的决定开了一个危险的先例。

15.predicament [(pre(=before) +dic( =say)提前说]

n. a condition or situation that is difficult, unpleasant, embarrassing or, sometimes,comical 困境.窘境

ex) The world is in a real prodicament with the proliferation of nuclear weapons.

世界因为核武器的剧增而陷入困境。

16.premeditated [pre(=before) +med(=attend to, measure, heal)事先注意、测量]

adj. thinking out, planning or considering beforehand 事先想好的,有计划的

premeditate 预先考虑 premeditation 预先设想

ex) Her slapping you wasn’t a promeditated act. She was just very angry.

她不是有意想打你,只是当时太生气了。

17.pretext [ pre(=before) +text( =weave)事先编织、编造]

n. a false reason or motive put forth to hide the real one 借口,托辞

ex) She used her mild cold as a pratext for missing work today.

今天她以轻微感冒为借口没去上班。

18.precept [(pre(=before) +cept( =take)亨先抓住]

n. moral instruction 训诫,戒律

preceptor 教师;训诫者

ex) One of the main precepts the Boy Scouts is to be "morally straight and clean".

童子军的主要戒律之一是“思想端正纯洁”。

19.precocious [pre(=before)+coc( =to mature, cook)早一点成熟]

adj. having developed certain faculties earlier than is normal 早熟的,较早具备某种能力的 precocity 早熟

ex) She’s a precocious tot. She could already read at 3.

她是个早慧的孩子,三岁的时候就会读书识字了。

20.predilection [pre(=before) +di<dis( =apart) +lect( =choose)事先个别地挑出来]

n. special liking, mental preference 特别喜欢,偏爱

ex)I have a strong predilection for sweets.

我特别喜欢甜食。

21.premonition [(pre(=before) + mon(=warn, advise, remind)事先警告、使想起]

n. feeling of uneasiness considered as a warning of approaching anger, etc. 预感,预告;前兆 premonitory 预告的,前兆的

ex)I had a promonition that we were going to have an earthquake.

我预感到了我们会遭遇地震。

22.prerogative [pre( =before) +rog( =ask)比某人率先提出要求]

n. a right or privilege that belongs to a person, class, etc. according to rank or position 特权,大权

ex)lt’s the mayor’s prerogative to choose the 4th of July speaker each year.

迭择每年独立纪念日(7月4日)的演讲者是市长的特权。

23.pretentious [(pre(=before)+tent( =stretch)向前伸展]

adj.claiming great merit or importance 自负的;炫耀的,夸张的,虚张声势的

pretend 装作…;自称 pretense 虚伪;做作 pretension 自负,自居,虚张声势;虚饰;主张 pretender 伪装者;妄想者

ex) The people at the country club aren’t protentious at all. They’re very nice!

那个乡村俱乐部的人一点都不自以为是,他们很友好!

24.precursor [(pre( =before) +curs( =run)事先、率先跑]

n. to sign; harbinger, forerunner;a predecessor as in office 征兆,预告;先驱者,先觉者;前任 precursory 先驱的;预兆的;预备的

ex)It has been said the Poe’s novels were precursors to the modem detective novel.

坡的小说被认为是现代侦探小说的先驱。

25.preempt [pre(=before)+empt (=take)亨先抓住、采取]

v. obtain by preemption; occupy public land so as to have the right of preemption; do something to frustrate the aggressive plans 通过优先购买权得到;为了得到优先购买权而占有(公地);先发制人,抢先取得,

事先获得

preemption 优先购买(权);优先获取 preemptive 先取得的;优先购买(权) 的;先发制人的

ex) The special news bulletin preempted regular programming.

特别新闻快报取代了常规播放的节目。

26.prefatory [pre(=before)+fa( =say)先说]

adj. of a preface; introductory 序言的,前言的

preface 序言,前言

ex) Before giving my speech, l’d like to make a few pretatory remarks.

在开始演讲之前,我想先说几句开场白。

27.presage [pre(=betore) +sag( =perceive)事先感觉、感知]

v. foretell, be a sign of, predict: have a presentiment of 预告,预示,预言;预知,预感

n. omen,a feeling that something is going to happen, foretelling 前兆,预告;预感

ex) Chest and arm pains, nausea, and shortness of breath can presage a heart attack.

胸口和胳膊疼痛、恶心、呼吸困难都可能是心脏病的前兆。

28.presentiment [pre( =before) +sent( =feel)事先感觉]

n. vague feeling that something unpleasant or undesirable is about to happen 预感,直觉

ex) l’ve had a presentiment all day that something extraordinary is going to happen.

我一整天都感觉好像要发生什么特别的事情似的。

29.prestigious [pre( =before) +stig<string( =prick, bind)事先刺,捆绑]

adj. bringing the influence or reputation gained by one’s achievement, abilities,position, etc. 出名的,闻名于世的,有名望的,名门的 prestige 名望,威望

ex) He was hired directty out of law school by a very prestigious law firm.

他一从法学院毕业就被一家有名的律师事务所录用。

30.prescience [(pre(=before)+sci( =know)事先知道]

n. apparent knowledge of things before they happen or come into being 预知,先见

prescient 预知的,有先见之明的

ex) Thanks to his prescience, he got out of the stock market betore it fell.

幸亏他有先见之明,得以在股市下跌之前脱身。

在线练习:

前缀pre-在线练习1,前缀pre-在线练习2,前缀pre-在线练习3,前缀pre-在线练习4,前缀pre-在线练习5,前缀pre-在线练习6