suffix -ism,-asm含义、词源和词例PPT

汉:名词后缀ism 来源于希腊语,意为"belief,speech,condition,state,act"。

英:suffix forming nouns of action, state, condition, doctrine, from French -isme or directly from Latin -isma, -ismus, from Greek -isma, from stem of verbs in -izein. Used as an independent word, chiefly disparagingly, from 1670s.

一.表示“…主义”

1.hedonism

n.belief that pleasure is the chief good 享乐主义 *hedon(=pleasure)

例句:The hedonism of our materialistic society will prove to be its downfall someday.物质社会的享乐主义终有一天会走向灭亡。

2.jingoism

n.excessive patriotism 沙文主义;侵略主义

例句:Iran’s government knows it must abandon the jingoism of the past before it can be accepted into the world community again.伊朗政府很清楚,要想看新被国际社会所接受,就必须放弃沙文主义。

3.nihilism

n.the belief that there is no meaning or purpose in existence;anarchism 虚无主义;无政府主义 *nihil(=nothing)

例句:The cult was founded upon principles of nihilism.这个教派建立在虚无主义的理论之上。

4.totalitarianism

n. a political system in which only one political party and on rival loyalties are permitted 极权主义 *tot (=whole)

例句:Cuba’s totalitarianism will have to give way to democracy before the U.S. can even consider lifting its sanctions against the communist nation.在美国考虑解除对古巴这一共产主义国家的制裁之前,古巴的极

权主义将不得不让位于民主主义。

二.表示宗教

buddhism n. 佛教 (buddha = 佛) ;Islamism 伊斯兰教 ; Lamaism 喇嘛教; Hinduism 印度教 ; Catholicism 天主教 ; quietism 寂静教;Judaism 犹太教;

三:表示语言、语风

1.colloquialism

n. colloquial word or phrase 口语体;口语用语 *col<com(=together),loqu(=say)

例句:Do you have a book on Chinese colloquialisms for students studying Mandarin?你适合学生学习普通话的中文口语用语书吗?

2.aphorism 格言;箴言;警言

3.archaism 古语,土语

4.euphemism 婉言,婉词

四.表示风格,特征

Asiaticism 亚洲风格;Germanism 德意志风格;orientalism 东方风格;Slavism 斯拉夫族风格;Grecism 希腊风格;occidentalism 西文人特征

五.表示行为、现象