suffix -ize,-ise含义、来源和词例PPT

汉:动词后缀ize意为"make",表示“使成…状态”、“使…化”等意思,英式英语中也使用-ise。 -ize 的源头希腊语,经由拉本语与法语进入英语。从法语引入的这类借词都以-ize结尾,所以,许多相关派生词有两种拼法,但以-ize为常用(-ize 结尾的常用词就有400多个)。-ize一般作为派生词缀在形容词或名词后面,构成动词,表示to make ~(使成为…,使…化),to become~(变成~),to engage or use~(使用…),to treat in the way of ~(按…方式处理),to act like~(像…一样行动)等。-ize 构成的动词多是及物动词,不及物动词为数很少。顺便指出,与-ize对应的表示行为与行为者名词后缀常常是-ization与-izer。-ize 作原生后缀的情况较少见。

英:word-forming element used to make verbs, Middle English -isen, from Old French -iser, from Late Latin -izare, from Greek -izein.

English picked up the French form, but partially reverted to the correct Greek -z- spelling from late 16c. In Britain, despite the opposition (at least formerly) of OED, Encyclopaedia Britannica, the "Times of London," and Fowler, -ise remains dominant. Fowler thinks this is to avoid the difficulty of remembering the short list of common words not from Greek which must be spelled with an -s- (e.g. advertise, devise, surprise).

1.decentralize

v.give greater powers for self-government,etc.地方分权

例句:Granting local autonomy was the first major step of South Korea’s decentralization process.赋予地方自治权是韩国地方分权化进程中的第一个重要步骤。

2.idolize

v.make an idol of ,love or admire to excess 偶像化,崇拜偶像*idol(=image)

例句:Teenaged girls idolized the rock band’s members.十几岁的女孩子们很崇拜那个摇滚乐队的成员。

3.pulverize

v.grind to powder,smash completely 捣,研磨成粉;彻底粉碎*pulver(=dust)

例句:Chicken bones are pulverize,mixed with manure and sold as fertilizer.鸡骨头被磨成粉掺在农家肥里,然后被当作肥料出售。

4.stigmatize

v.describe somebody scornfully 诬蔑,贬低 *stig(=prick,mark)

例句:I refuse to be stigmatized as a liberal!我拒绝被诬蔑为自由主义者。

5.tantalize

v.keep just out of reach something that somebody desires;raise hopes that cannot be realized 使干着急;挑逗*tantal[=(king)Tantalus]

例如:She tantalizes the boys,but has never accepted any of their advances.她挑逗那些男孩子,但却从不接受他们中任何人的求爱。

6.temporize

v.delay making a decision,giving an answer,stating one’s purpose etc;act so as to gain time;compromise拖延决定、回答、说明目的等;(为争取时间)应付;妥协 *tempor(=time)

例如:John tried temporizing,but i demanded he give me a straight answer without delay.约翰试图拖延时间,但我要求他给我一个直接的答复,别再拖延。

7.vitalize

v.fill with vitality;put vigor into 赋予生命力;使有生气 *vit(=life)

例如:An infusion of investment has vitalized the Vietnamese economy.引进势将投资为越南经济注入活力。

8.ostracize

v.shut out from society;refuse to meet ,talk to ,etc. 放逐;排斥 *ostrac(=shell)

例如:The ancient Greeks ostracized a dangerous citizen by public vote.古希腊人通过分投驱逐危险公民。