suffix -ling 中英文意思 小,与某事物(或情况)有关的人或生物PPT

后缀-ling 有多种来源,来源于日耳曼语、中古英语和古英语,属于名词,形容词,副词后缀,一般构成人称名词,带有轻蔑意味,比 -let 感情更强烈;另外,它也出现于一些动植物名称,表示“小”,不具有构造新词能力,如:seedling 小苗、catling 小猫、duckling 小鸭。当此后缀属于形容词或副词后缀时,表示“状态”,例如:darkling 在黑暗中的、sideling 倾斜地,偏于一边的。

英文词源:diminutive word-forming element, early 14c., from Old English -ling a nominal suffix (not originally diminutive), from Proto-Germanic *-linga-; attested in historical Germanic languages as a simple suffix, but probably representing a fusion of two suffixes: 1. that represented by English -le (thimble, handle), from Old English -ol, -ul, -el, representing PIE *-lo- (see -ule); and 2. -ing, suffix indicating "person or thing of a specific kind or origin;" in masculine nouns also "son of" (farthing, atheling, Old English horing "adulterer, fornicator"), from PIE *-(i)ko- (see -ic).

Both these suffixes had occasional diminutive force, but this was only slightly evident in Old English -ling and its equivalents in Germanic languages except Norse, where it commonly was used as a diminutive suffix, especially in words designating the young of animals (such as gæslingr "gosling"). Thus it is possible that the diminutive use that developed in Middle English is from Old Norse.

后缀-ling有两种含义。

(1)属于名词后缀,表示“小”

1.catling [cat n. 猫 + -ling 后缀表示小]

n.小猫

2.gosling [gos=goose 鹅 + -ling 后缀]

n.小鹅

3.birdling [bird 鸟 + -ling 后缀]

n.小鸟,幼鸟

4.lordling [lord n. 主 + -ling 后缀]

n.小贵族,小老爷

5.seedling [seed 种子 +-ling 后缀]

n.从种子长出来的植物;苗木

6.yeraling [year 年 + -ling 后缀]

n. 一岁小兽

(2)表示“与某事物 ( 或情况 ) 有关的人或生物、具有某种性质的人或生物”

1.weakling [weak 弱 + -ling 后缀]

n.体弱的人,意志薄弱者

2.underling [under 在…下面 + -ling 后缀]

n.部下,下属,下手

3.worldling [world 世界 + -ling 后缀]

n.世俗之徒,凡人

4.suckling [suck 吸 + -ling 后缀]

n. 乳儿,乳兽