suffix -shipPPT

汉: 名词后缀-ship,总的来意思为“quality,condition,state,office,skill”, 名词后缀-ship跟“船”没有任何关系。它是个本族语派生后缀,一般与名词相结合构成抽象名词,表示the position or occupation of~(…职业,…行业),the quality or condition or being~(…的性质或状况),th act or skill of ~(…的行为或技能),the relation between~s(…间的关系)以及the number of ~s(…的数量)等意思。从中又细分出三个小意思:

英:O.E. -sciepe, Anglian -scip "state, condition of being," from P.Gmc. *-skapaz (cf. O.N. -skapr, O.Fris. -skip, Du. -schap, Ger. -schaft), from *skap- "to create, ordain, appoint," from PIE root *(s)kep- (see shape (v.)).

1.表示情况、状态、性质、关系

dictatorship

n.government by a dictator 独裁政府;独裁国家 dict=say

The U.S supported dictatorship of Penata during the Cold war.

冷战期间,美国支持佩纳特的独裁统治

friendship 友谊,友好 comradeship 同志关系

hardship 困难,受苦 felowship 伙伴关系

2.表示身分、职位、资格、权限

citizenship

n.being a citizen;rights and duties of a citize 公民的身分;公民的权利和义务

Dual citizenship is possible in most European coutries.

大多数欧洲国家都允许公民具有双重国籍

apprenticeship

n.being a leamer of trade who has agreed to work for a number of years in return for being taught 学徒身分;学徒年龄 ap=ad;prent=take

Each new employee will undergo a six-month apprenticeship.

每一个新雇员都将有六个月的学徒期

lordship 贵族身分 studentship 学生身分

doctorship 博士学位 sonship 儿子身分

heirship 继承权 colonelship 上校衔

3.表示技艺、技能、…法、…术

craftsmanship

skilled workmanship手艺,技能

Paul Revere’s craftsmanship had made his silverware prized possessions.

保罗.里维尔的手艺十分精湛,他打造的银器成为珍贵的物品。