pro- 中英文意思 前;公开PPT

来源于希腊语和拉丁语pro。

同源单词

by-product, compromise, improvident, microprocessor, portrait

prefix pro-(pur-,por-,prod-,pr-) 的词源、含义和例词PPT

来源:

汉:

前缀pro-来自拉丁介副词pro,意为“forward,forth(向前)或out(出)”,还有“in favour of,in place of"等含义。作为原生词缀pro- 只与拉丁词根相结合,其读音为/prə/或/prɔ/。pro- 后来也被英语同化为派生词缀,能与名词相结合,表示in favour of (亲,赞成)或in place of (代副)的意思。对名词起修饰作用,这时pro- 读音为/prəu/。

英:

word-forming element meaning "forward, forth, toward the front" (as in proclaim, proceed); "beforehand, in advance" (prohibit, provide); "taking care of" (procure); "in place of, on behalf of" (proconsul,pronoun); from Latin pro "on behalf of, in place of, before, for, in exchange for, just as," which also was used as a prefix.

Also in some cases from cognate Greek pro "before, in front of, sooner," which also was used in Greek as a prefix (as in problem). Both the Latin and Greek words are from PIE *pro- (cognates: Sanskrit pra-

"before, forward, forth;" Gothic faura "before," Old English fore "before, for, on account of," fram "forward, from;" Old Irish roar "enough"), extended form of root *per- (1) "forward, through" (see per).

The common modern sense "in favor of, favoring" (pro-independence, pro-fluoridation, pro-Soviet, etc.) was not in classical Latin and is attested in English from early 19c.

根据不同的意思整理如下。

I. FOREWARD

1.向前

proclivity, provoke, proponent

II. FORTH

1.向前

profuse, prominent, prolong

III. BEFORE

1.先前,提前 ,首先

prosecute, proficient, propitious

IV. FOR, ACCORDING TO, IN PLACE OF

1.赞同…,支持…

pro and con, pro-American

2.跟随…

proportion, proportionalism

3.代替…

pronoun, proconsul

另外,前缀PRO还有如下几种变形。

1.PUR [在辅音字母c,p,s,v前]

purchase, purport, pursue, purvey

2.POR [在辅音字母t前]

portrait

3.PROD [在元音字母前]

prodigal prodigious

4.PR [在元音字母前o脱落]

prudent

1.prosecute [(pro( =before) +secut(=follow)事先追踪行迹]

vt. start legal proceedings against; continue a business,a task,etc.起诉,告发;从事,经营

prosecution 起诉,告发;从事;(the~堪防(原告),检察当局

prosecutor 检察官;起诉人

ex) The DA decided not to prosecute the young man, as it was his first offense.

鉴于那个年轻人是首次犯法,地方检察官决定不起诉他了。

2.procure [( pro ( =before) +cur ( =take care)事先注意、小心]

vt. obtain with care or effort; bring about; obtain women for the purpose of prostitution 得到,获得;引起,招致;介绍妓女

procurement 获得,采办 procurer 拉皮条者 procuress 老鸨 procurator 代诉人 procurable 可获得的;可实现的

ex) My fiance procured a string quarter to play when he proposed.

我未婚夫向我求婚的时候,动用了一个弦乐四重奏乐团。

3.proficient [(pro(=before) +fic( =make, do)首先制作]

adj. skilled 娴熟的,熟练的

n. a person who has skill in some special thing 能手,大师,名家

proficiency n. 娴熟,熟练

ex)I wouldn’t say l’m a great saxophone player-l’m just barely proticlent

我不能说我是萨克斯演奏家,我只是吹得比较娴熟而已。

4.prolong [(pro( =forth) +long( =long)使向前变长]

vt. make longer 延长,拉长;拖长音节等的发音

prolongation 延长,延期 prolonged 持续很久的

ex) We didn’t want to prolong our dog’s suffering, so we put him to

我们不想让狗继续受苦,所以让它永眠了。

5.prominent [(pro( =fotlh) +min( =project)向前突出]

adj. easily seen; eminent, distinguished; standing out 显眼的,显著的;卓越的,著名的;突出的,突起的

prominence 突出,显著;卓越,著名

ex) My uncle is a prominent member of the city council.

我的叔叔是著名的市议会议员。

6.prudent [(pr<pro(=before) +ud<vid( =look)先看)

adj. acting only after careful thought or planning, careful, wise, sensible 慎重的,小心的;明智的,精明的

prudence 慎重 prudential 慎重的,小心的;深谋远虑的

ex) It would be prudent to wait until you’ve saved more money to buy the car.

等你多攒一点钱再买车,这样会比较明智。

7.proclaim [(pro(=forth) +claim( =cry)向前喊]

vt. make known publicly or officially; reveal; show 宣布,公布,声明;显露;显示

proclamation 宣布,公布,发布;宣言

ex) The mayor proclaimed this as"Be Nice To Your Secretary Week".

市长宣布这个星期是“善待秘书周”。

8.prodigal [(prod<pro(=forth)+ig( =drive)向前赶]

adj. wasteful; too free in giving or spending; abundant 浪费的;慷慨的,挥霍的;丰富的

prodigality 挥霍,浪费 prodigally 浪费地,挥霍地

ex) My father’s prodigal spending left him bankrupt after a few years.

我父亲过着奢侈的生活,没几年就破产了。

9.prodigious [prod<pro( =before) +ig<ag( =saying)事先作为谚语、格言流传下来的]

adj. enormous,surprisingly great; beyond what is ordinary; wonderful 巨大的;非凡的;惊人的

prodigy 奇迹,奇事;非凡的人,天才

ex)A prodigious thunderstorm rolled in and buckets of rain dropped.

一场大暴风雨席卷而来,倾盆而下。

10.promontory [pro( =forth) +mont<mount( =hill,rise)向前突出的山坡]

n. high point of land standing out from the coastline; headland 海角;岬

ex) Comet Point is a small promontory of land jutting into the Pacific.

彗星角是一个伸向太平洋的小海角。

11.protuse [(pro( =forth) +fus( =pour)向前倾倒]

adj. very plentiful or abundant; lavish or extravagant; giving generously 很多的,丰富的;浪费的,奢侈的;毫不吝惜的,豪爽的,慷慨的

profusion 丰富;慷慨;浪费,奢侈 profusely 毫不吝啬地;丰富地

ex) The profuse stand of Douglas fir trees perfumes the air with pine scent.

密密麻麻的花旗松使周围空气中弥漫着松香。

12.proponent [(pro(=forward,forth)+pon (=put)向前放、提出]

n. person who proposes something 提议者,发起者

propound 提议,提出 proposition 提案,计划

ex)I’ve always been a proponent of gun control.

我一直都提议管制枪支。

13.profess [(pro( =forth) +fess( =say)在众人面前吐露]

vt. make a public declaration of; claim falsely; have something as one’s profession 公开宣称;自称,冒充,假装;把…作为职业

profession 职业;宣布 professionalism 专家气质,职业选手的气质 professor 教授 professional 职业的,专家的;职业选手,专家,内行 professed 公然的;冒充的 professionally 职业地,专业地 professedly公

然地;冒充地

ex)The president professes confidence in the nation’s economic recovery.

总统公开表示了对国家经济复苏的信心。

14.protrude [ pro( =forth) +trud/trus( =thrust)向前推]

v. stick out or project 推出去,伸出,使突出

protrusion 伸出,突出,突起 protrusive 伸出的,突出的;惹眼的

ex) The lavatory protrudes 22 inches from the bathroom wall.

洗脸池从洗手间墙壁土突出来22英寸。

15.provoke [pro(=forward,forth)+vok/voc( =call)事先叫喊]

vt. make angry; bring about; incite; arouse 令人生气;诱发;刺激…使发生;引起感情等

provocation 令人生气,挑拨 provocative 令人生气的,刺激的 provoking 激怒的

ex) My words provoked her so much that she stopped speaking to me.

我的话惹怒了她,所以她不再跟我说话了。

16.prognosticate [(pro(=before)+gno (=know)事先、提前知道]

vt.foretell or predict especially from signs or indications 预言,预知,预测

prognosis 预后(对疾病发展状况的预见) prognostication 预测,预言,预知;前兆;征候 prognosticator 预言家,预测者 prognostic 预后的,表现出征兆的;前兆的;预测,预后

ex)The meteorologists are prognosticating the hurricane’s arrival for tomorrow morning.

气象学家预测明天早晨台风会到达。

17.prolific [pro(=forlh) +l<al( =nourish) 给予养分使之向前]

adj. producing many young or much fruit; turning out many products of the mind;fruitful, abounding 乡产的;作品多的;丰饶的;丰富的

ex) James Michener was one of the most prolific modern novelists.

詹姆斯·米切纳是最多产的现代小说家之一。

18.propensity [(pro( =forth) +pens(=hang, weigh, pay)向前悬挂]

n. a natural inclination or tendency 倾向,癣性,习性

ex)I have a propensity to tap my fingers when I’m nervous.

我有个习惯,紧张的时候会轻叩手指。

19.proffer [( pr<pro (=forward) +of <ob (=toward) +fer(=carry)朝着某个东西向前输送]

vt. offer something intangible 提供,提议

n. offer 提供,提议

ex) We proffered our services as house painters to all our neighbors that summer.

那年夏天我们主动帮所有的邻居粉刷了房子。

20.propitious [(pro(=before, forward) +pit<pet( =seek) 为了事先求得、获得而费心思]

adj. favorable; well-disposed 颇利的,有利的,形势有利的;善意的,善良的

ex) Economic conditions are propitious for starting a new business now.

现在的经济状况有利于开始新的生意。

21.proclivity [(pro( =forward) +cliv( =bend)向前弯曲)]

n. a natural or habitual tendancy,or inclination especially toward something discreditable 倾向,癖性,习性

ex) Don’t believe everything she says; she has aproclivity for exaggeration.

不要完全相信她的话,她喜欢夸大其词。

22.proscribe [(pro (=before) + scrib ( =write)事先写)]

vt. forbid someone to do something; put outside the protection of the law; force someone to go away 禁止;剥夺公权;放逐

proscription 剥夺公权:放逐;禁止

ex) The state senate proscribed an expiration date on welfare benefits.

州议院禁止对福利收益设置截止期限。

23.protege(pro( =before) +teg<tect( =cover,hide)事先藏好、遮盖、保护]

n. a person who is under the protection of another 被保护者;门徒

ex) Mr. Higgins treated me as his protege during my first years with the firm.

在我来公司的前几年,希金斯先生一直把我当成他的门徒。

24.purport [(pur<pro( =forth) +port(=carry)向前输送]

n. general meaning or intention of something said or written 意义,主旨,要旨

vt. mean, imply; claim 意味,大意是…;声称,号称

ex)A recently announced dietary supplement purports to cure snoring.

据称,最近公布的膳食补给品可以治疗打鼾。

25.purview [(pur<pro( =forth) +view( =look)向前展望]

n. range of operation or activity; range of sight or understanding; the body and scope of an act or bill 苑围;视野;见识;要项,条款

ex) The program’s purview extends to all persons who reside in on-campus housing.

这个项目涉及在校园内居住的所有人的利益。