super- 中英文意思 上,超过PPT

来源于拉丁语super。

同源单词

sovereign, super, superficial, superfluous, superior

prefix super- (sur-,supr-,sop-,sopr-,sove-) 中英文意思 over,abovePPT

前缀super-来自拉丁介副词super,意为“over",还有“over,above,beyond,than,more,excessively”的含义。前缀sur-,supr-,sop-,sopr-,sove-是super-的变化型。super- 既可以作为原生前缀存在拉丁借词中,也可以作为派生前缀跟名词、形容词及动词相缀合,构成许多常用词,与super结合的单词,多是拉丁借词,本族语词较少。这些派生词都是17世纪出现的的,此外,在构词过程,派生前缀super- 一般不改变词基单词的词性。

词源:word-forming element meaning "above, over, beyond," from Latin super-, from adverb and preposition super "above, over, on the top (of), beyond, besides, in addition to," from *(s)uper-, variant form of PIE *uper "over" (cf. Sanskrit upari, Avestan upairi "over, above, beyond," Greek hyper, Old English ofer "over," Gothic ufaro "over, across," Gaulish ver-, Old Irish for), comparative of root *upo "under" (see sub-). In English words from Old French, it appears as sur-. The primary sense seems to have shifted over time from usually meaning "beyond" to usually meaning "very much," which can be contradictory. E.g. supersexual, which is attested from 1895 as "transcending sexuality," from 1968 as "very sexual."

下面重点看一下前缀super- 的主要意思“over”。

1.越过…,比…多,变得更加…

surmount, insuperable

2.在…的上面,在上面

supercilious, superficial

3.超过,剩下,多余地,过多地

surplus,surfeit

4.从上到下,颠倒,跌倒

supersede, surveillance, supervene

5.关于…,整个,全部,逐一地,从开始到结束,完全地,重复,再一次,结束

surmise

另外,前缀super- 还有以下几种主要变形。

1.sur

surmountable, survival

2.supr

supreme

3.sopr

soprano

此外,前缀super- 还有一些同义前缀,也有“在上面,越过,超越”的含义。

1.epi, 2.hyper, 3.over, 4.trans, 5.ultra, 6.up

以下介绍与词缀super-与词根构成的有代表性的常单词。学完后您可以通过super- 在线测试练习一、super-的在线习题二、super-的在线习题三,对所学的前缀super-进行巩固练习。

1.supersede [super( =over) +sed( =sit)在上面坐]

vt. take the place of; put or use someone or something in the place of 取代;更替

supersession 取而代之;更替

ex) Model AE-400 supersedes Model AE-200.

模型 AE-400 取代 AE-2000

2.surplus [sur<super( =over) +plu( =more)数量上超过、剩余很多]

n. amount that remains after needs have been supplied; excess of receipts over

expenditure 过剩,残余,剩余;剩余额

adj. exceeding what is needed or used 过剩的,剩余的

ex) We have a surplus of uniforms in size XL.

我们剩有一套XL号的制服。

3.surmount [sur<super( =over) +mount(=hill, mountain, rise)越过山坡]

vt. overcome dffficulties or obstacles; have on or over the top 克服(困难、障碍),越过,翻越;放、搁在…上

surmountable可以克服的 insurmountable无法克服的

ex) The typical hero of a romance novel surmounts difficulty and triumphs.

浪漫爱情小说里的典型主人公总是能够克服困难取得胜利。

4.insuperable [in( =not) +super( =over)无法越过某物的]

adj. insurmountable; that cannot be overcome 无法克服的;不可逾越的

ex) Today a lack of education is a virtually insuperable impediment.

今天,缺乏教育实际上是难以克服的障碍因素。

5.supercilious [super( =above) +cili( =eyelid)向上提眉毛的]

adj. showing contemptuous indifference 傲慢的,轻视别人的,自大的

ex) His supercilious manner is quite off-putting.

他傲慢的态度真是令人厌恶。

词根:

sed(sit)

sedative 镇静剂;使镇静的 ;sedentary 坐着的;sediment 沉淀物;沉淀

plu(more)

plural 复数(的);pluralism 多元论;plurality 多数

mount(=hill,mountain)

mountaineer 登山家;mountain 山;(pl.) 山脉;remount 重上(马、自行车);替换乘坐的马 *re(=again)

cili(=eyelid)

cilia 睫毛;纤毛,缘毛 ciliate 有睫毛的:纤毛虫

superciliary 眼睛上方的;眉毛的 *super( =above)

6.superficial [super(=above,over)+fic( =make,do)使登到上边]

adj. of or on the surface only; not thorough or profound 表面的,外表的;肤浅的,没有深度的,浅薄的

superficiality 表面性;肤浅,浅薄

ex)I got a C-minus. The teacher said my essay was superficial.

我得了C老师说我的论文太肤浅。

7. surfeit [sur<super( =over, excessive) +feit( =do, make)使过度]

n. too much of anything, especially food and drink 过多,过食,过饮,腻烦

v. (cause to) take too much of anything (使)喝过多,(使)吃太多.(使)腻烦

ex) There’s a surfeit of great recipes on the Internet. 网上的食谱多得让人腻烦。

8.surmise [sur<super( =over) +mis( =send)关于、对于某事派送]

vt. conjecture 推测,猜想

n. guess 推测,猜想

ex) The Republicans in this district aren’t as conservative as you might surmise.

这个地区的共和党人不像你想的那样保守。